The ability to detect and identify vehicle surveillance requires a keen understanding of how a surveillance teams operates. Prior to a surveillance team implementing active vehicle surveillance, efforts are made to access the target’s normal driving patterns. This planning phase of the operation allows a surveillance team to seamlessly mirror the target’s vehicle maneuvers while following without being compromised.
The primary objective of the target of vehicle surveillance is to expose any potential surveillance vehicles without alerting the surveillance. Once a surveillance team is alerted, the target may be pursued aggressively or more sophisticated surveillance techniques may be employed as counter measures.
There are specific vehicle maneuvers a target can execute to expose potential surveillance without being compromised. Each maneuver must be executed flawlessly to avoid alerting the surveillance team. Vehicle surveillance operators are trained, based on previous knowledge of the target’s normal driving patterns, to anticipate possible maneuvers the target might attempt.
A vehicle surveillance team is operating based on a keen understanding of the target’s normal driving patterns. Some drivers tend to drive the speed limit while others normally exceed the speed limit. For example, if a target known to be a careful driver suddenly starts driving faster, the vehicle surveillance may view this maneuver as suspicious or aggressive and react accordingly. The same scenario holds true to a target known to drive erratically or above the speed limit and then for no seemingly apparent reason starts to drive slowly or more cautiously when a surveillance vehicle is following.
To detect vehicle surveillance and to avoid alerting potential surveillance, any driving pattern changes made by the target must appear normal or plausible. For example, to expose a surveillance vehicle a target might execute a U-turn. If the target is a careful driver then making an erratic sudden U-turn will alert a surveillance vehicle following. Therefore, the target must execute the U-turn for a plausible reason.
For example, if there are too many cars in the left hand lane waiting to make a left hand turn at an upcoming intersection, the target vehicle could make a U-turn at the next available legal point to avoid traffic. Executing the maneuver this way would not be seen as necessarily suspicions to a surveillance team following. However, by making a U-turn, the surveillance vehicle or vehicles will need to react and most likely will pull off the road or into a nearby parking lot to reacquire the target.
After executing the U-turn the target can safely pay note and identify any vehicles, which suddenly pull off the road or turn into parking lots. Normally a surveillance vehicle would not mirror same U-turn for fear of being exposed.
Another vehicle maneuver for exposing potential vehicle surveillance involves a target driving on a highway. Given the speed and cover of other vehicle, a vehicle surveillance team does have advantage of being able to follow the target without being noticed. To detect vehicle surveillance a target might decide to get off at nearest exit and then without warning continue without turning left or right and re-enter the highway going in the same direction. Again, this will cause a surveillance vehicle to either mirror same pattern, which target can use to expose surveillance, or discontinue the pursuit. If a surveillance vehicle mirrors the target’s maneuver the surveillance vehicle risk being exposed, if the target being followed is paying attention.
There are other vehicle maneuvers, which can be implemented to detect vehicle surveillance, which are quite effective if executed properly. Regardless of maneuvers or tactics used, the primary objective of the target is to expose surveillance efforts without alerting the surveillance. A vehicle surveillance team will make every effort to understand how a target may respond given various circumstances and scenarios. This operational phase allows a vehicle surveillance team to effectively monitor or follow a target unawares once the formal operation begins.
Electric vehicles have been around for many years, even though the general public think that electrically powered vehicles are a recent invention. This is because only in recent years these type of vehicles have become more widely known due to being considered as possible alternatives to vehicles powered by combustion engines in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to Global warming.
An electrically powered small scale model car invented in 1828 in Hungary is considered by many as being the first invented electric vehicle. Others consider an electric powered carriage invented in the 1830’s in Scotland by Robert Anderson as the first electrical powered vehicle. Another small scale electric car was designed by Professor Stratingh and built by Christopher Becker, his assistant, in Holland in 1835. Thomas Davenport also built a small electric car in 1835. He also invented the first DC motor built in the US.
Unfortunately battery technology was not advanced enough to justify further development of these type of vehicles back then. It was not until the late 1890’s that the first true passenger electric vehicle was built by William Morrison in the US. In fact in the years 1899 and 1900 more electric vehicles were sold than other types of vehicles like gasoline and steam powered vehicles in the US.
In the 1900’s electric powered vehicles had many advantages as compared to their competitors. They didn’t have the smell, vibration as well as noise as did the gasoline vehicles. Also, changing gears on gasoline vehicles was the most complicated part of driving, while electrical automobiles did not require gear changes. Steam-powered cars additionally had no gear shifting, but they suffered from long start-up times of up to 45 minutes on cold early mornings.
Steam vehicles had less range before requiring water than an electric vehicle’s range on a single charge. The best roads of the period were in town, restricting most travel to local commuting, which was well suitable for electric vehicles, since their range was limited. The electric car was the preferred alternative of many because it did not require to manually turn the hand crank to start the engine as the gasoline vehicles needed and there was no wrestling with a gear shifter to change gears.
During World War I, the cost of petrol went through the roof contributing to the popularity of electric cars. This lead to the development of the Detroit Electric which started production in 1907. The car’s range between battery recharging was about 130km (80 miles). The range depended on exactly what type of battery came with the vehicle. The typical Detroit Electric was actually powered by a rechargeable lead acid battery, which did exceptionally well in cold weather.
But the popularity of the electric car quickly came to an end. With better roads being built not only within cities, but also connecting them, the need for longer range vehicles grew. This made the electric car an impractical means of transportation. Also the newly discovered oil in the state of Texas in the US which brought the price of gas down considerably, along with the electric starter invention in 1912 which eliminated the need for a hand crank, made the gasoline vehicle the vehicle of choice. And with Henry Ford making them extremely affordable to the general public by mass producing them, the fate of the electric vehicle was sealed for many years.
It wasn’t until the 1990’s that electric vehicles started resurfacing. With the Global warming issue, the exorbitant prices of imported crude oil and legislation for smog reduction in cities, electric vehicles not only resurfaced but this time are here to stay. One of the main reasons contributing to the re-birth of the electric car is the advance in battery technology. The lithium-ion battery packs and the nickel metal hybrid battery packs are much lighter than previous batteries and can hold enough charge to power a vehicle for 100’s of Miles at high speeds between charges making electrical vehicles efficient and practical.